Tag: science

Science Cures ALL Hangovers || No More Hangovers

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The wine that won’t give you a hangover! Scientists discover that altering DNA of the yeast within the drink can reduce adverse effects

Wine-lovers may soon be able to indulge in their favourite drink without any adverse effects the next morning.

Scientists claim they have discovered the key to making hangover-free wine, by altering the DNA of yeast in the drink.

As well as reducing toxic by-products that cause the dreaded headaches and nausea of a hangover, the breakthrough could boost wine’s health benefits, the researchers said.

Professor Yong-Su Jin and his team at Illinois University used the enzyme nuclease as a ‘genome knife’ to snip DNA and precisely modify yeast strains used in fermentation.

They found that winemakers can clone the enzyme to enhance malolactic fermentation – a secondary process that makes wine smooth.

Improper malolactic fermentation generates the toxic byproducts thought to cause hangover symptoms, Professor Jin said.

The research, published in the journal Applied and Environmental Microbiology, also offers hope of improving the nutrition of foods made using fermentation, including beer, bread and pickles.

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8 Back To The Future II Gadgets That Actually Exist

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It’s 2015, the year Doc Brown and Marty McFly flew to in Back To The Future part II. But has it lived up to the hype?

There may not be any flying cars or time-travelling Deloreans yet – but Back To The Future was alarmingly spot on with many predictions.

So here’s what it got right, and what we’re only slightly bitter about that we haven’t yet received.

Anyone fancy a rehydrated pizza?

It predicted:

1. Hands-free gaming

Remember the line ‘you have to use your hands? That’s like a baby’s toy!’?  Hello to the birth of the Xbox Kinect.

2. Flying cars

The Transition, designed by Massachusetts-based Terrafugua Inc., the company’s prototype flying car, during its first flight. The vehicle has two seats, four wheels and wings that fold up so it can be driven like a car, and flew at 1,400 feet for eight minutes during the test. Commercial jets fly at 35,000 feet. This prototype flying car goes on display at the New York Auto Show this week. March 23, 2012 photo provided by Terrafugia Inc.

OK so they’re not in mainstream use and cost $200,000 from Terrafugia, but they are around and they do exist. They have folding wings for the road and can fly 500 miles on 20 gallons of fuel. Quick lunch in Berlin, anyone?

3. 3D movies

3D movies have been around for years, but were they predicted by this giant Jaws popping out of the top of the cinema?

4. The Hoverboard
THEY EXIST! And hopefully will be available by October 2015 *crosses fingers*.

5. Power laces

Possibly the laziest invention ever, the power laces sported by Marty McFly do exist in the Nike Air Mags, although you’ll need about £5,000 for the convenience of not having to bend down in the middle of the street to tie your shoe.

6. Video communication

Oh hi there, Skype.

7. Video glasses

And hi there to you, Google Glass.

8. The thumb plate

For now you may not be able to open your home without fumbling for your house keys – but this technology exists and is in use. Example: The iPhone with thumb print unlocking.

What Back To The Future II has not yet delivered:

1. Self-drying clothes

There are clothes that dry our sweat, self-iron and repel spills, but none that are quite as good as Marty McFly’s ‘life-preserver’ jacket that dries itself in about five seconds after he falls in a pond. Anyone who went to a uni by the sea will know the need for these after a night clubbing ends with an ill-advised fully-clothed dip.

2. Predicting weather to the exact moment

This ability is definitely necessary.

3. The food hydrator

An oven that turns something the size of a digestive biscuit into a pizza that feeds a family of six? Come on Black & Decker, we need this.

4. Notable mentions: The dog-walking drone, the voice-activated fruit basket, the TV waiters, the sleep-inducing alpha-rhythm generator, the floating thing for when you put your back out, face peels that make you younger.

Sort it out, science guys.

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Contact Lens Eats Students Eye!

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Contact Lens Eats Students Eye! – This is Why You Should Take Out Your Contact Lenses!

Student’s eyeballs EATEN by bug after she failed to clean contact lenses

Doctors said Lian Kao, 23, was infected by a single-cell amoeba because she failed to carry out basic hygiene

A student’s eyeballs were DEVOURED by a bug – after she failed to clean her disposable contact lenses for more than six months.

Doctors said 23-year-old Lian Kao’s case is an extreme lesson in the importance of basic hygiene.

Under pressure because of her university studies, the young woman failed to take ever contact lenses and wash them once for half a year.

When she eventually went to hospital, medics were horrified when they removed the contact lenses to find that the surface of the girl’s eyes had literally been eaten by a single-cell amoeba.

The bug had been able to breed in the perfect conditions that existed between the contact lens and the eye.

Lian Kao has been left blinded as a result.

Doctor Wu Jian-liang, said: “Contact lens wearers are a high-risk group that can easily be exposed to eye diseases.

“A shortage of oxygen can destroy the surface of the epithelial tissue, creating tiny wounds into which the bacteria can easily infect, spreading to the rest of the eye and providing a perfect breeding ground.

“The girl should have thrown the contact lenses away after a month but instead she overused them and has now permanently damaged her corneas.”

He said that she had been diagnosed with acanthamoeba keratitis, which although rare was always more common in the summer.

Dr Jian-liang revealed the girl’s case to shock other contact lens wearers into being more careful about hygiene.

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Cocaine Found In Tap Water

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Britain’s high drug use blamed as cocaine found in water supply

Cocaine has been found in Britain’s water supply.

Traces of the drug were detected by the Drinking Water Inspectorate, along with several other compounds, including caffeine.

The class A drug was found in its metabolised form, which occurs after it’s been processed through the body, despite the fact the water had been refined several times.

The discovery of cocaine has been blamed on the increased use of the drug by people across the UK.

‘We have the near highest level of cocaine use in western Europe,’ Steve Rolles, from the Transform research institute, told The Sunday Times.

‘It has also been getting cheaper and cheaper at the same time as its use has been going up.’

Public Health England reassured water drinkers the volume of cocaine found was not sufficient enough to cause any real danger.

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Science to Grow Replacement Vagina’s

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(Reuters) – Four young women born with abnormal or missing vaginas were implanted with lab-grown versions made from their own cells, the latest success in creating replacement organs that have so far included tracheas, bladders and urethras.

Follow-up tests show the new vaginas are indistinguishable from the women’s own tissue and have grown in size as the young women, who got the implants as teens, matured.

All four of the women are now sexually active and report normal vaginal function. Two of the four, who were born with a working uterus but no vagina, now menstruate normally.

It is not yet clear whether these women can bear children, but because they are menstruating, it suggests their ovaries are working, so it may be possible, said Dr Anthony Atala, director of Wake Forest Baptist Medical Center’s Institute for Regenerative Medicine in North Carolina.

Atala said the pilot study is the first to show that vaginal organs custom-built in the lab using patients’ own cells can be successfully used in humans, offering a new option for women who need reconstructive surgeries.

All four of the women in the study were born with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome, a rare genetic condition in which the vagina and uterus are underdeveloped or absent. Conventional treatment generally involves the use of grafts made from intestinal tissue or from skin, but both tissues have drawbacks, says Atala, a pediatric urologic surgeon at Wake Forest.

Intestinal tissue produces an excess of mucus, which can cause problems with odor. Conventional skin, meanwhile, can collapse.

Atala said women with this condition usually seek treatment as teenagers. “They can’t menstruate, especially when they have a severe defect where they don’t have an opening,” he said. This can cause abdominal pain as menstrual blood collects in the abdomen. “It has nowhere else to go,” he added.

Girls in the study were aged 13 and 18 at the time of the surgeries, which were performed between June 2005 and October 2008.

The researchers started off by collecting a small amount of cells from genital tissue and grew two types of cells in the lab: muscle cells and epithelial cells, a type of cell that lines body cavities. About four weeks later, the team started applying layers of the cells onto a scaffold made of collagen, a material that can be absorbed by the body. They then shaped the organ to fit each patient’s anatomy, and placed it in an incubator.

A week later, the team created a cavity in the body and surgically attached the vaginal implants to existing reproductive organs. Once implanted, nerves and blood vessels formed to feed the new organ, and new cells eventually replaced the scaffolding as it was absorbed by the body.

“By the six-month time point, you couldn’t tell the difference between engineered organ and the normal organ,” Atala said.

The team continued to monitor the young women, taking tissue biopsies, MRI scans and internal exams, for up to eight years from the initial implants.

All of these tests showed the engineered vaginas “were similar in makeup and function to native tissue,” said Atlantida-Raya Rivera, director of the HIMFG Tissue Engineering Laboratory at the Metropolitan Autonomous University in Mexico City, where the surgeries were performed.

Professor Martin Birchall of UCL Ear Institute in London, who wrote a commentary in the same journal, said the findings address some important questions about tissue-engineering, including whether tissue will grow as patients grow and whether an organ as large as the vagina can develop blood vessels when implanted in the body.

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Zombie Perfume | The Walking Dead Solution | Eu De Death

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Uh… There’s a New Fragrance That Smells Like Dead People, and Aims to Protect You From Becoming Zombie Lunch

Finding the right fragrance coupled with dressing well and being freshly groomed are important not just for personal hygiene, but also to attract the fairer sex. Eu de Death, however, does quite the opposite. Scientist Raychelle Burks has concocted a scent so putrid its main purpose is to ward off zombies, you now, just in case the Zombie Apocalypse becomes reality. Yes, this really does exist.

From watching TV and movies, we all know that smelling like a walking corpse will prevent you from being attacked by zombies. Burks’ new scent contains a mix of “putrescine and cadaverine” chemical compounds to mimic the smell of death. Just apply a spritz, and zombies will no longer find you appetizing. Is this scientifically proven to actually work? We’re not sure since human knowledge of zombie behavior involves Walking Dead marathons.

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5 Second Rule Is Real | Five-Second Rule Proven To Be Real

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The belief that food is still good to consume if it has been dropped on the floor for fewer than six seconds — a belief commonly known as the five-second rule — is real, because science.

Final year biology students at a British university found that time is a ‘significant factor’ in the transfer of bacteria from the floor to a piece of food.

The students, from Birmingham’s Aston University and working under professor of microbiology Anthony Hilton, monitored how quickly E. coli and other common bacteria spread from indoor floor surfaces to toast, pasta and other sticky foods.

As well as providing some evidence to support the five-second rule, they also found that the type of flooring is crucial in the transfer of bacteria, with carpet surprisingly the safest.

‘Consuming food dropped on the floor still carries an infection risk as it very much depends on which bacteria are present on the floor at the time; however the findings of this study will bring some light relief to those who have been employing the “five-second rule” for years, despite a general consensus that it is purely a myth,’ Prof Hilton said.

Now we know, and knowing is half the battle.

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Bacon and Cheesecake Officially as Addictive as COCAINE!

Scientists have finally confirmed what the rest of us have suspected for years: Bacon, cheesecake, and other delicious yet fattening foods may be addictive.

A new study in rats suggests that high-fat, high-calorie foods affect the brain in much the same way as cocaine and heroin. When rats consume these foods in great enough quantities, it leads to compulsive eating habits that resemble drug addiction, the study found.

This comes off the back of research that show some foods can actually GET RID OF BELLY FAT – www.healthambition.com/foods-get-rid-belly-fat/

Doing drugs such as cocaine and eating too much junk food both gradually overload the so-called pleasure centers in the brain, according to Paul J. Kenny, Ph.D., an associate professor of molecular therapeutics at the Scripps Research Institute, in Jupiter, Florida. Eventually the pleasure centers “crash,” and achieving the same pleasure–or even just feeling normal–requires increasing amounts of the drug or food, says Kenny, the lead author of the study.

bacon addiction, cocaine, food addiction, addictive foods, health, food, science, the science of addiction, cheesecake, cheesecake addiction, addictive cheesecake

“People know intuitively that there’s more to [overeating] than just willpower,” he says. “There’s a system in the brain that’s been turned on or over-activated, and that’s driving [overeating] at some subconscious level.”

In the study, published in the journal Nature Neuroscience, Kenny and his co-author studied three groups of lab rats for 40 days. One of the groups was fed regular rat food. A second was fed bacon, sausage, cheesecake, frosting, and other fattening, high-calorie foods–but only for one hour each day. The third group was allowed to pig out on the unhealthy foods for up to 23 hours a day.

Not surprisingly, the rats that gorged themselves on the human food quickly became obese. But their brains also changed. By monitoring implanted brain electrodes, the researchers found that the rats in the third group gradually developed a tolerance to the pleasure the food gave them and had to eat more to experience a high.

They began to eat compulsively, to the point where they continued to do so in the face of pain. When the researchers applied an electric shock to the rats’ feet in the presence of the food, the rats in the first two groups were frightened away from eating. But the obese rats were not. “Their attention was solely focused on consuming food,” says Kenny.

In previous studies, rats have exhibited similar brain changes when given unlimited access to cocaine or heroin. And rats have similarly ignored punishment to continue consuming cocaine, the researchers note.

The fact that junk food could provoke this response isn’t entirely surprising, says Dr.Gene-Jack Wang, M.D., the chair of the medical department at the U.S. Department of Energy’s Brookhaven National Laboratory, in Upton, New York.

“We make our food very similar to cocaine now,” he says.

Coca leaves have been used since ancient times, he points out, but people learned to purify or alter cocaine to deliver it more efficiently to their brains (by injecting or smoking it, for instance). This made the drug more addictive.

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According to Wang, food has evolved in a similar way. “We purify our food,” he says. “Our ancestors ate whole grains, but we’re eating white bread. American Indians ate corn; we eat corn syrup.”

The ingredients in purified modern food cause people to “eat unconsciously and unnecessarily,” and will also prompt an animal to “eat like a drug abuser [uses drugs],” says Wang.

The neurotransmitter dopamine appears to be responsible for the behavior of the overeating rats, according to the study. Dopamine is involved in the brain’s pleasure (or reward) centers, and it also plays a role in reinforcing behavior. “It tells the brain something has happened and you should learn from what just happened,” says Kenny.

Overeating caused the levels of a certain dopamine receptor in the brains of the obese rats to drop, the study found. In humans, low levels of the same receptors have been associated with drug addiction and obesity, and may be genetic, Kenny says.

However, that doesn’t mean that everyone born with lower dopamine receptor levels is destined to become an addict or to overeat. As Wang points out, environmental factors, and not just genes, are involved in both behaviors.

Wang also cautions that applying the results of animal studies to humans can be tricky. For instance, he says, in studies of weight-loss drugs, rats have lost as much as 30 percent of their weight, but humans on the same drug have lost less than 5 percent of their weight. “You can’t mimic completely human behavior, but [animal studies] can give you a clue about what can happen in humans,” Wang says.

Although he acknowledges that his research may not directly translate to humans, Kenny says the findings shed light on the brain mechanisms that drive overeating and could even lead to new treatments for obesity.

“If we could develop therapeutics for drug addiction, those same drugs may be good for obesity as well,” he says.

Research – Positive Health Wellness – www.positivehealthwellness.com/diet-nutrition/10-bad-foods-actually-good/