Tag: pain

Depression, YouTube, VEDA and Reasons To Smile (VEDA Day 27)

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Depression is a horrible thing. It can make you feel lost, lonely and alone. That is why I went out of my way to combat these feelings by making my happy good memories wall.

Each one of those pictures help to remind me that I have great friends, amazing family and wonderful memories to lift my mood when I ever feel blue.

You should never be afraid to reach out and ask for help. Never face this evil alone and if you cant bring yourself to talk to someone, why not make a good memory wall like mine 🙂

If you would like to talk to anyone about anything try the numbers below.

Whether you’re concerned about yourself or a loved one, these helplines can offer expert advice. Depression, anxiety, obsession and mental health

Rethink Mental Illness
Support and advice for people living with mental illness.
Phone: 0300 5000 927 (Mon-Fri, 10am-2pm)
Website: www.rethink.org

Depression Alliance
Charity for sufferers of depression. Has a network of self-help groups.
Website: www.depressionalliance.org

CALM is the Campaign Against Living Miserably, for men aged 15-35.
Website: www.thecalmzone.net

Bipolar UK
A charity helping people living with manic depression or bipolar disorder.
Website: www.bipolaruk.org.uk

Confidential support for people experiencing feelings of distress or despair.
Phone: 08457 90 90 90 (24-hour helpline)
Website: www.samaritans.org.uk

Charity offering support and carrying out research into mental illness.
Phone: 0845 767 8000 (daily, 6pm-11pm)
SANEmail email: sanemail@org.uk
Website: www.sane.org.uk

Promotes the views and needs of people with mental health problems.
Phone: 0300 123 3393 (Mon-Fri, 9am-6pm)
Website: www.mind.org.uk

The Mental Health Foundation
Provides information and support for anyone with mental health problems or learning disabilities.
Website: www.mentalhealth.org.uk

Information on child and adolescent mental health. Services for parents and professionals.
Phone: Parents’ helpline 0808 802 5544 (Mon-Fri, 9.30am-4pm)
Website: www.youngminds.org.uk

Young suicide prevention society.
Phone: HOPElineUK 0800 068 4141 (Mon-Fri,10am-5pm & 7pm-10pm. Weekends 2pm-5pm)
Website: www.papyrus-uk.org
Abuse (child, sexual, domestic violence)

Children’s charity dedicated to ending child abuse and child cruelty.
Phone: 0800 1111 for Childline for children (24-hour helpline)
0808 800 5000 for adults concerned about a child (24-hour helpline)
Website: www.nspcc.org.uk

Advice on dealing with domestic violence.
Phone: 0808 2000 247 (24-hour helpline)
Website: www.refuge.org.uk

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Docs Perform First Successful Penis Transplant

A 21-year-old man who lost his penis after circumcision regains all function within four months of surgery.

Doctors and nurses who performed the surgery.

Doctors have performed the world’s first successful penis transplant.

The nine-hour operation by surgeons in Cape Town offers hope to high numbers of South African men who lose their penises due to complications with traditional circumcision.

Experts thought the unnamed 21-year-old patient – who had to have his penis amputated three years ago after circumcision – would take two years to regain all function.

However, it has taken just four months for this to occur – resulting in December’s operation being declared a success.

The surgery was five years in the planning at Stellenbosch University and Tygerberg Hospital.

It was led by Professor Andre van der Merwe, who said: “We are very surprised by his rapid recovery.

“It’s a massive breakthrough. We’ve proved that it can be done – we can give someone an organ that is just as good as the one that he had.

“There is a greater need in South Africa for this type of procedure than elsewhere in the world, as many young men lose their penises every year due to complications from traditional circumcision.”

The surgery has been attempted once before – but this is the first example of a successful long-term result.

Experts estimate as many as 250 penis amputations take place every year across South Africa.

“This is a very serious situation,” said Prof van der Merwe. “For a young man of 18 or 19 years, the loss of his penis can be deeply traumatic.

“He doesn’t necessarily have the psychological capability to process this. There are even reports of suicide among these young men.

“The heroes in all of this for me are the donor, and his family. They saved the lives of many people because they donated the heart, lungs, kidneys, liver, skin, corneas, and then the penis.”

The transplant followed the path laid by the first facial transplant.

“We used the same type of microscopic surgery to connect small blood vessels and nerves, and the psychological evaluation of patients was also similar,” said Prof van der Merwe.

The procedure could eventually be extended to men who have lost their penises from penile cancer or as a last-resort treatment for severe erectile dysfunction.

Wife Cuts Off Husbands Penis… TWICE!

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Wife chops off cheating husband’s penis twice – then stray animal steals it – Wife Cuts Off Husbands Penis… TWICE! –

A wife who cut off her cheating husband’s penis sneaked back into hospital to remove it for a second time.

She allegedly flew into a rage after discovering a flirty email exchange between husband Fan Lung and his lover Zhang Hung – on her mobile phone.

The 32-year-old’s pride and joy was snipped off with a pair of scissors as he slept at his home in Shangqiu, China’s Henan province.

He was taken to hospital where he had it sewn back on. However, his fuming spouse, 30, slipped into his treatment room and cut it off again before throwing it out of a window.

‘Someone told reception a naked man was beating up a woman outside,’ a hospital spokesman said.

‘Staff found the patient with blood streaming down his legs hitting the woman. He was stopped and his wife was taken in for treatment.

‘Then we discovered she had chopped his penis off again.’

Doctors and police officers combed the area outside but failed to find the dad-of-five’s missing member.

They believe it may have been stolen by a stray dog or cat.

‘He is now in a stable condition but emotionally distraught,’ the spokesman added.

His wife was discharged and is under arrest for grievous bodily harm.

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Don’t Be A Dick, Check Your Nuts || Testicular Cancer – Cancer Research UK || Project for Awesome 2014 #P4A2014

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Don’t Be A Dick Check Your Nuts || Testicular Cancer – Cancer Research UK || Project for Awesome 2014 #P4A2014

This video is for Project for Awesome 2014 #P4A2014 #P4A14. Project for Awesome 2014 #P4A2014 #P4A14 is a mass YouTuber charity fund raising event where people pick a charity to make a video for. These Project for Awesome 2014 #P4A2014 #P4A14 videos are then uploaded to www.ProjectForAwesome.com to help people vote for charities and raise awareness of all the Project for Awesome 2014 #P4A2014 #P4A14 causes.

My Project for Awesome 2014 #P4A2014 #P4A14 charity video is for Cancer Research UK and Testicular Cancer. Cancer of the testicles, also known as testicular cancer, is one of the less common cancers. It usually affects younger men between the ages of 15 and 49.

The most common symptom is a painless lump or swelling in the testicles. Other symptoms can include:

  • a feeling of heaviness in the scrotum
  • a dull ache in the scrotum (the sac of skin that hangs underneath the penis and contains the testicles)

Men should check their testicles every month for any unusual lumps, much like women are advised to check for breast lumps regularly.

Read more about the symptoms of testicular cancer.

The testicles

The testicles are the two oval-shaped male sex organs that sit inside the scrotum on either side of the penis.

The testicles are an important part of the male reproductive system because they produce sperm and the hormone testosterone, which plays a major role in male sexual development.

Types of testicular cancer

The different types of testicular cancer are classified by the type of cells the cancer first begins in.

The most common type of testicular cancer is known as ‘germ cell testicular cancer’, which accounts for around 95% of all cases. Germ cells are a type of cell that the body uses to help create sperm.

There are two main subtypes of germ cell testicular cancer. They are:

  • seminomas, which account for around 40-45% of all germ cell testicular cancers
  • non-seminomas, which account for around 40-45% of all germ cell testicular cancers

Seminomas and non-seminomas tend to respond well to chemotherapy, a treatment that uses medication to kill cancer cells.

Less common types of testicular cancer include:

  • Leydig cell tumours, which account for around 1-3% of cases
  • Sertoli cell tumours, which account for around 1% of cases
  • Lymphoma, which accounts for around 4% of cases

This article focuses on germ cell testicular cancer. Contact Macmillan for more information on Leydig cell tumour and Sertoli cell tumour.

Read information about Hodgkin lymphoma and Non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

How common is testicular cancer?

Testicular cancer is relatively uncommon, accounting for just 1% of all cancers that occur in men.

Each year in the UK around 2,300 men are diagnosed with testicular cancer, according to Cancer Research UK.

Testicular cancer is unusual compared to other cancers because it tends to affect younger men. As a result, although relatively uncommon overall, testicular cancer is the most common type of cancer to affect men between the ages of 15 and 49.

Rates of testicular cancer are five times higher in white men than in black men. The reasons for this are unclear.

The number of cases of testicular cancer that are diagnosed each year in the UK has roughly doubled since the mid-1970s. Again, the reasons for this are unclear.

Causes of testicular cancer

The cause or causes of testicular cancer are unknown, but a number of things have been identified that increase the chance of developing the condition. These include:

  • having a family history of testicular cancer
  • being born with undescended testicles (cryptorchidism). About 3-5% of boys are born with their testicles located inside their abdomen, which usually descend into the scrotum during the first four months of life

Read more about the causes of testicular cancer.


Testicular cancer is one of the most treatable types of cancer. More than 96% of men with early stage testicular cancer will be completely cured.

Even cases of more advanced testicular cancer, where the cancer has spread outside the testicles to nearby tissue, have an 80% chance of being cured.

Compared to other cancers, deaths from testicular cancer are rare. Cancer Research UK say that around 70 men die from testicular cancer every year in the UK.

Treatment for testicular cancer includes the surgical removal of the affected testicle (which should not affect fertility or the ability to have sex), and chemotherapy. Less commonly, radiotherapy (a treatment that uses radiation to kill cancer cells) may be used for seminomas.

Read more about treating testicular cancer.

Symptoms of testicular cancer

The most common symptom of testicular cancer is a lump or swelling in one of your testicles.

The lump or swelling can be about the size of a pea, but may be larger.

Most testicular lumps or swellings are not a sign of cancer. But they should never be ignored. You should visit your GP as soon as you notice a lump or swelling in one of your testicles.

Associated symptoms

Testicular cancer can also cause other symptoms, including:

  • a dull ache or sharp pain in your testicles or scrotum, which may come and go
  • a feeling of heaviness in your scrotum
  • a sudden collection of fluid in your scrotum (hydrocele)
  • fatigue
  • a general feeling of being unwell

When to see your GP

It is important to visit your GP as soon as you notice any lump or swelling on your testicle.

Your GP will examine your testicles to help determine whether or not the lump is cancerous.

Research has shown that less than 4% of testicular lumps are cancerous. For example, varicoceles (swollen blood vessels) are a common cause of testicular lumps. For more information about varicoceles, read more about testicular lumps and swellings.

In the unlikely event that you do have testicular cancer, the sooner treatment begins, the greater the likelihood you will be completely cured.

If you do not feel comfortable visiting your GP, you can go to your local sexual health clinic, where a healthcare professional will be able to examine you.

Find your local sexual health clinic.

Metastatic cancer

If testicular cancer has spread to other parts of your body, you may also experience other symptoms. Cancer that has spread to other parts of the body is known as metastatic cancer.

Around 5% of people with testicular cancer will experience symptoms of metastatic cancer.

The most common place for testicular cancer to spread is to nearby lymph nodes in your abdomen or lungs. Lymph nodes are glands that make up your immune system. Less commonly, the cancer can spread to your liver, brain or bones.

Symptoms of metastatic testicular cancer can include:

  • a persistent cough
  • coughing or spitting up blood
  • shortness of breath
  • swelling and enlargement of male breasts
  • a lump or swelling in your neck
  • lower back pain

Causes of testicular cancer

The causes of testicular cancer are not fully understood.

However, we do know about several things that increase your risk of developing the condition.

Increased risk

Some risk factors for testicular cancer are outlined below.

Undescended testicles

Undescended testicles is the most significant risk factor.

When male babies grow in the womb, their testicles develop inside their abdomen. The testicles then normally move down into the scrotum when the baby is born or during their first year of life.

However, for some children, the testicles fail to descend. The medical name for undescended testicles is cryptorchidism.

Surgery is usually required to move the testicles down. If you have had surgery to move your testicles down into your scrotum, your risk of developing testicular cancer may be increased.

One study found that if surgery is performed before the child is 13 years of age, their risk of later developing testicular cancer is approximately double that of the rest of the population. However, if the operation is carried out after the boy is 13 years of age, the risk of developing testicular cancer is five times greater than that of the rest of the population.

Previous testicular cancer

Men who have previously been diagnosed with testicular cancer are 12 times more likely to develop testicular cancer in the other testicle.

For this reason, it is important to attend follow-up appointments if you have previously been diagnosed with testicular cancer.

Age and race

Unlike most other types of cancer, testicular cancer is more common in young and middle-aged men with an average of 85% of cases diagnosed in men aged 15-49. Men aged 30-34 are most likely to be diagnosed with testicular cancer.

Testicular cancer is more common in white men than other ethnic groups. It is also more common in Northern and Western Europe compared with other parts of the world.

Family history

Having a close relative with a history of testicular cancer increases your risk of developing it.

If your father had testicular cancer, you are four to six times more likely to develop it than a person with no family history of the condition. If your brother had testicular cancer, you are eight to 10 times more likely to develop it (having an identical twin with testicular cancer means that you are 75 times more likely to develop it).

The fact that testicular cancer appears to run in families has led researchers to speculate that there may be one or more genetic mutations (abnormal changes to the instructions that control cell activity) that make a person more likely to develop testicular cancer.

A promising piece of research carried out in 2009 identified mutations in two genes (known as the KITLG and SPRY4 genes) that appear to increase the risk of a person developing testicular cancer.

Endocrine disruptors

Examples of endocrine disruptors include:

  • some types of pesticide
  • polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chemical compounds used as a coolant
  • dibutyl phthalate, a chemical used to manufacture cosmetics, such as nail polish

In most countries, including the UK, many endocrine disruptors, such as PCBs, have been withdrawn as a result of their link to health problems. However, there is a concern that exposure to endocrine disruptors may still occur due to contamination of the food chain.

However, there is not yet enough evidence to prove a definite link between indirect exposure to low levels of endocrine disruptors and health problems. Indirect exposure is the type of exposure that would occur if the food chain was contaminated.


Men who are infertile are three times more likely to develop testicular cancer than fertile men.

The reasons for this are not clear.


Research has found that long-term smokers (people who have been smoking a pack of 20 cigarettes a day for 12 years or 10 cigarettes a day for 24 years) are twice as likely to develop testicular cancer than non-smokers.


Studies show that men with HIV or AIDS have an increased risk of testicular cancer.


A study that was carried out in 2008 found that a man’s height affects his chances of developing testicular cancer.

Men who are 190-194cm (6.1-6.3ft) tall are twice as likely to develop testicular cancer than men of average height. Very tall men, who are 195cm (6.4 ft) or above, are three times more likely to develop testicular cancer than men of average height.

Being shorter, less than 170cm (5.6ft) tall, decreases your risk of getting testicular cancer by around 20%.

Researchers who conducted the study think the link between height and cancer risk may be caused by diet. Taller children often require a higher-calorie diet as they are growing up, and it may be the effects of such a diet that leads to the increase in cancer risk.

Diagnosing testicular cancer

See your GP if you notice a lump or abnormality on or in your testicles.

Most testicular lumps are not cancerous, but it is important you have the abnormality checked as treatment for testicular cancer is much more effective when started earlier.

Physical examination

As well as asking you about your symptoms and consulting your medical history, your GP will usually need to carry out a physical examination of your testicles.

Your GP may hold a small light or torch against the lump in your testicle to see whether light passes through it. Cancerous lumps tend to be solid, which means light is unable to pass through.

Tests for testicular cancer

If your GP suspects the lump in your testicle may be cancerous, you will be referred for further testing at a hospital. Some of the tests you may have are outlined below.

Scrotal ultrasound

A scrotal ultrasound scan is a painless procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves to produce an image of the inside of your testicle. This is one of the main ways your health professional will be able to determine whether or not your lump is cancerous (malignant) or non-cancerous (benign).

During a scrotal ultrasound, your specialist will be able to determine the position and size of the abnormality in your testicle.

It will also give a clear indication of whether the lump is solid or filled with fluid. A lump filled with fluid is known as a cyst and is usually harmless. A more solid lump may be a sign the swelling is cancerous.

Blood tests

To help confirm your diagnosis, you may need a series of blood tests to detect certain hormones in your blood, which are known as ‘markers’. Testicular cancer often produces these markers, so having them in your blood may be an indication you have the condition.

Markers in your blood that will be tested for include:

  • AFP (alpha feta protein)
  • HCG (human chorionic gonadotrophin)
  • LDH (lactate dehydrogenate)

Not all forms of testicular cancer produce these markers. There may still be a chance you have testicular cancer even if your blood test results come back normal.


The only way to definitively confirm a case of testicular cancer is to have a biopsy of the tumour taken. The cells from the tumour can be examined in a laboratory to determine whether it is cancerous.

For most cases the only way to safely take a biopsy is to remove the affected testicle completely. This is because specialists often think the risk of the cancer spreading is too high for a conventional biopsy to be taken.

Your specialist will only recommend removing your testicle if they are relatively certain your lump is cancerous. Losing a testicle will not affect your sex life or ability to have children.

The removal of a testicle is known as an orchidectomy. The main form of treatment for testicular cancer is removing the affected testicle, so if you have testicular cancer it is likely you will need an orchidectomy.

Read about treating testicular cancer for more information about the procedure.

Other tests

If your specialist feels it is necessary, you may require further tests to check whether testicular cancer has spread. When cancer of the testicle spreads, it most commonly affects the lymph nodes and lungs.

Therefore, you may require a chest X-ray to check for signs of a tumour. You may also require a scan of your entire body, such as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan or a computerised tomography (CT) scan to check for signs of the cancer spreading.

Stages of testicular cancer

Once these tests have been completed, it is usually possible to determine the stage of your cancer.

There are two ways the staging of testicular cancer can be categorised. The first is known as the TNM staging system:

  • T – indicates the size of the tumour
  • N – indicates whether the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes
  • M – indicates whether the cancer has spread to other parts of the body (metastasis)

Testicular cancer is also staged numerically. There are four stages:

  • Stage 1 – the cancer is contained inside your testicles
  • Stage 2 – the cancer has spread from the testicles into the lymph nodes in your abdomen and pelvis
  • Stage 3 – the cancer has spread into the lymph nodes in your upper chest
  • Stage 4 – the cancer has spread into another organ, such as your lungs

Want to know more?

Treating testicular cancer

If you have testicular cancer, your recommended treatment plan will depend on two factors:

  • whether you have a seminoma or a non-seminoma
  • the stage of your cancer (see diagnosing testicular cancer for more information about staging)

The first treatment option for all cases of testicular cancer, whatever the stage, is to surgically remove the affected testicle (an orchidectomy).

In cases of stage one seminomas, after the testicle has been removed, a single dose of chemotherapy is usually given to help prevent the cancer returning. Sometimes a short course of radiotherapy is recommended.

In stage one non-seminomas, close follow-up (called surveillance) may be recommended, or a short course of chemotherapy using a combination of different medications.

In cases of stage two and stage three cancer, three to four cycles of chemotherapy are given using a combination of different medications. Further surgery may sometimes be needed after chemotherapy to remove any affected lymph nodes.

A similar treatment plan is used to treat stage four cancer. Additional surgery may also be required to remove tumours from other parts of the body, depending on the extent of the spread of the tumour.

Deciding what treatment is best for you can be difficult. Your cancer team will make recommendations, but the final decision will be yours.

Before going to hospital to discuss your treatment options, you may find it useful to write a list of questions to ask the specialist. For example, you may want to find out the advantages and disadvantages of particular treatments.


An orchidectomy is the medical name for the surgical removal of a testicle. If you have testicular cancer, it is necessary to remove the whole testicle because only removing the tumour may lead to the cancer spreading. By removing the entire testicle, your chances of a  full recovery are greatly improved. Your sex life and ability to father children will not be affected.

If you have testicular cancer that is detected in its very early stages, an orchidectomy may be the only treatment you require.

The operation is performed under general anaesthetic. A small incision (cut) is made in your groin and the whole testicle is removed through the incision. If you want, you can have an artificial (prosthetic) testicle inserted into your scrotum so that the appearance of your testicles is not greatly affected. The artificial testicle is usually made from silicone (a soft type of plastic).

After an orchidectomy, you will need to stay in hospital for a few days. If you only have one testicle removed, there should not be any lasting side effects.

If you have both testicles removed (a bi-lateral orchidectomy), you will be infertile. However, it is only necessary to remove both testicles in one in every 100 cases.

You may be able to bank your sperm before having a bi-lateral orchidectomy to allow you to father children if you decide to.

Sperm banking

Some treatments for testicular cancer can cause infertility. For some treatments, such as chemotherapy, infertility may be temporary.

For other treatments, such as a bi-lateral orchidectomy or a ‘traditional’ lymph node removal, infertility will be permanent.

Before your treatment begins, you may want to consider sperm banking. Sperm banking is where a sample of your sperm is frozen so that it can be used at a later date to impregnate your partner during artificial insemination. Before sperm banking, you may be asked to have tests for HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C infection.

Not all men are suitable for sperm banking. For the technique to work, the sperm has to be of a reasonably high quality. There may also be circumstances where it is considered too dangerous to delay treatment for sperm banking to take place.

Some NHS cancer treatment centres offer a free sperm banking service. Other centres may not have the facilities available, so you may have to pay a private company. Prices can vary, but on average it will cost £200-400 to have your sperm extracted and frozen, plus a further £125 a year to store the sperm.

Testosterone replacement therapy

Having both testicles removed will also stop you producing testosterone. This means you will have a low libido (a decreased sex drive) and will not be able to achieve or maintain an erection. In this case, you will require testosterone replacement therapy.

Testosterone replacement therapy is where you are given a synthetic version of the testosterone hormone to compensate for the fact that your testicles will no longer produce the natural version.

Testosterone is usually given either as injections or skin patches. If you have injections, you will usually need to have them every two to three months. If you have testosterone replacement therapy, you will be able to maintain an erection and sex drive.

Side effects of testosterone replacement therapy are uncommon and usually mild. They include:

  • oily skin, which can sometimes trigger the onset of acne
  • enlargement and swelling of your breasts
  • a change in normal urinary patterns, such as needing to urinate more frequently or having problems passing urine (caused by an enlarged prostate gland that puts pressure on your bladder)

Lymph node surgery

If your testicular cancer is more advanced, it may spread to your lymph nodes. Your lymph nodes are part of your body’s immune system, which help to protect it against illness and infection.

Lymph node surgery is carried out under general anaesthetic. The lymph nodes in your abdomen are the nodes most likely to need removing.

In some cases, the nerves near to the lymph nodes can become damaged, which means that rather than ejaculating semen out of your penis during sex or masturbation, the semen instead travels back into your bladder. This is known as retrograde ejaculation.

If you have retrograde ejaculation, you will still experience the sensation of having an orgasm during ejaculation, but you will not be able to father a child.

As with an orchidectomy, you may wish to bank your sperm before your operation, in case you become infertile.

Nerve-sparing retroperitoneal lymph node dissection

A new type of lymph node surgery, called nerve sparing retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND), is increasingly being used because it carries a lower risk of causing retrograde ejaculation and infertility.

In nerve-sparing RPLND, the site of the operation is limited to a much smaller area. The advantage of limiting the site of the operation is that there is less chance of nerve damage occurring. The disadvantage is that the surgery is more technically demanding. Because of this, nerve-sparing RPLND is currently only available at specialist centres that employ surgeons with the required training.

Laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection

Laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (LRPLND) is a new type of ‘keyhole’ surgery that can be used to remove the lymph nodes. During LRPLND, the surgeon will make a number of small incisions (cuts) in your abdomen.

A special instrument called an endoscope is inserted into one of the incisions. An endoscope is a thin, long, flexible tube that has a light source and a video camera at one end, enabling images of the inside of your body to be relayed to an external television monitor.

Small, surgical instruments are passed down the endoscope and can be used to remove the affected lymph nodes.

The advantage of LRPLND is that there is less post-operative pain and a faster recovery time. Also, as with nerve-sparing RPLND, in LRPLND there is a smaller chance that nerve damage will lead to retrograde ejaculation.

However, as LRPLND is a new technique, there is little available evidence regarding the procedure’s long-term safety and effectiveness. If you are considering LRPLND, you should understand there are still uncertainties about the safety and effectiveness of the procedure.


Radiotherapy uses high-energy beams of radiation to help destroy cancer cells. Sometimes, seminomas may require radiotherapy after surgery, to help prevent the cancer from returning.

If your testicular cancer has spread to your lymph nodes, you may require radiotherapy after a course of chemotherapy.

Side effects can include:

  • reddening and soreness of the skin, which is similar to sunburn
  • nausea
  • diarrhoea
  • fatigue

These side effects are usually only temporary and should improve on completion of your treatment.

Read more information about radiotherapy.


Chemotherapy uses anti-cancer medicines to kill the malignant (cancerous) cells in your body or stop them multiplying.

If you have advanced testicular cancer or it has spread within your body, you may require chemotherapy. It is also used to help prevent the cancer returning. Chemotherapy is most commonly used to treat non-seminoma tumours.

Chemotherapy medicines are usually injected or given orally (by mouth). Sometimes, chemotherapy medicines can attack your body’s normal, healthy cells. This is why chemotherapy can have many different side effects. The most common include:

  • vomiting
  • hair loss
  • nausea
  • sore mouth
  • loss of appetite
  • fatigue
  • breathlessness
  • infertility (usually temporary)
  • ringing in your ears (tinnitus)
  • skin that bleeds or bruises easily
  • increased vulnerability to infection
  • numbness and tingling (pins and needles) in your hands and feet

These side effects are usually only temporary and should improve after you have completed your treatment.

You should not father children while you are receiving chemotherapy and for a year after treatment has finished. Chemotherapy medications can temporarily damage your sperm, increasing your risk of fathering a baby with serious birth defects. Therefore, you will need to use a reliable method of contraception, such as a condom, during this time.

Condoms should also be used during the first 48 hours after having a course of chemotherapy. This is to protect your partner from any potentially harmful effects of the chemotherapy medication in your sperm.

Read more information about chemotherapy.


Even if your cancer has been completely cured, there is a risk that it will return. Around 25-30% of people experience a return of the cancer, usually within the first two years after their treatment has finished.

Because of this risk, you will need regular tests to check if the cancer has returned. These include:

Follow-up and testing is usually recommended depending on the extent of the cancer and the treatment offered. This is usually more frequent in the first year or two but follow-up appointments may last for up to five years.

If the cancer does return and is diagnosed at an early stage, it will usually be possible to cure it using chemotherapy and possibly also radiotherapy. Some types of recurring testicular cancer have a cure rate of over 95%.

Preventing testicular cancer

Testicular cancer cannot usually be prevented. But it is important to check your testicles regularly. See your GP if you notice any lumps or abnormalities.

Cancer is easier to treat when diagnosed early. If you regularly examine your testicles, you are more likely to notice any swelling or abnormalities at an early stage of development.

Checking your testicles

The best time to check your testicles is after a warm shower or bath, because this is when your scrotal skin will be most relaxed. You should examine both of your testis around once a month.

Hold your scrotum in the palms of your hands, and use your fingers and thumbs to examine your testicles. You should first feel the size and weight of your testicles. A lot of men have one testicle which is larger than the other. You may also have one testicle that hangs slightly lower than the other.

As well as feeling the size and weight of your testicles, gently feel each individually.

They should feel smooth with no lumps or swellings with a soft, tube-like section at the top and back of each testicle. This is your epididymis, which is used to store sperm. It may feel slightly tender, which is normal.

It is very rare to develop cancer in both testicles. If you are unsure about what your testicle should feel like, try comparing it to your other one.

If you find a lump or swelling, visit your GP as soon as possible.

Routine checks

There is disagreement among the international medical community about who should check for testicular cancer and how often.

The American Cancer Society (ACS) recommends regular checks are only required in men with pre-existing risk factors such as:

  • a family history of testicular cancer
  • a history of undescended testicles
  • being infertile

ACS argues there is no evidence that regular self-examinations help to lower the number of testicular cancer deaths, but it may be causing unnecessary anxiety and worry in men who have non-cancerous lumps (around 96% of all cases of lumps or swellings in the testicles).

Organisations like the Department of Health (DH) and Cancer Research UK advise men check their testicles regularly (usually once a month).

They argue that even though the vast majority of cases of testicular lumps are not caused by cancer, routine self-examination is justified by the fact that the earlier testicular cancer is diagnosed, the greater the chance of it being cured.


Of all of the known risk factors for testicular cancer, smoking is the most significant risk factor you can address.

If you smoke, giving up will halve your risk of developing testicular cancer, as well as reduce your risk of getting many other serious health conditions, such as lung cancer and heart disease.

If you decide to stop smoking, your GP will be able to refer you to an NHS Stop Smoking Service, which will give you dedicated help and advice about the best ways to give up. You can also call the NHS Smoking helpline on 0300 123 1014. Trained helpline staff can offer free expert advice and encouragement.

If you are committed to giving up smoking but do not want to be referred to a stop smoking service, your GP should be able to prescribe medical treatment to help with withdrawal symptoms you may have.

Read more information about:


Project for Awesome 2014 Website – www.ProjectForAwesome.com
Cancer Research UK Information  – www.cancerresearchuk.org/about-cancer/type/testicular-cancer
NHS – www.nhs.uk/conditions/Cancer-of-the-testicle/Pages/Introduction.aspx
DONATE – www.projectforawesome.com/donate

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Man Gets Tattoo On His EYEBALL


Man gets tattoo on his eyeball

A man has undergone a rare procedure to get a tattoo on his eyeball.

William Watson, 58, of New York, had ink injected into his eye after living with an all-white iris following an injury when he was young.

As a child Mr Watson was struck in the face by a ball.

The incident left his eye a cloudy hue which drew unwanted attention, he said.

So the Madison Square Garden worker decided to undergo the hour-long cosmetic procedure – which does not improve the condition of the damaged eye but creates the appearance of a normal pupil.

Dr Emil Chynn of Park Ave SafeSight and CJ Pento was drafted in to ink up Mr Watson’s eye.

After the tattoo Mr Watson said: ‘It felt like someone was rubbing it – that’s about it. It went smoothly, no nothing whatsoever. It was nice.’

And amazingly, after a few weeks of healing, his pupils looked nearly identical.

He continued: ‘I can’t believe how much better I look on the outside and how much better I feel inside.

‘Dr Chynn gave me a way to normality I didn’t even know existed six months ago. I feel much more confidence in myself.’


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Contact Lens Eats Students Eye!

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Contact Lens Eats Students Eye! – This is Why You Should Take Out Your Contact Lenses!

Student’s eyeballs EATEN by bug after she failed to clean contact lenses

Doctors said Lian Kao, 23, was infected by a single-cell amoeba because she failed to carry out basic hygiene

A student’s eyeballs were DEVOURED by a bug – after she failed to clean her disposable contact lenses for more than six months.

Doctors said 23-year-old Lian Kao’s case is an extreme lesson in the importance of basic hygiene.

Under pressure because of her university studies, the young woman failed to take ever contact lenses and wash them once for half a year.

When she eventually went to hospital, medics were horrified when they removed the contact lenses to find that the surface of the girl’s eyes had literally been eaten by a single-cell amoeba.

The bug had been able to breed in the perfect conditions that existed between the contact lens and the eye.

Lian Kao has been left blinded as a result.

Doctor Wu Jian-liang, said: “Contact lens wearers are a high-risk group that can easily be exposed to eye diseases.

“A shortage of oxygen can destroy the surface of the epithelial tissue, creating tiny wounds into which the bacteria can easily infect, spreading to the rest of the eye and providing a perfect breeding ground.

“The girl should have thrown the contact lenses away after a month but instead she overused them and has now permanently damaged her corneas.”

He said that she had been diagnosed with acanthamoeba keratitis, which although rare was always more common in the summer.

Dr Jian-liang revealed the girl’s case to shock other contact lens wearers into being more careful about hygiene.


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